Accreditation/Credit Designation

Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC, is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC, designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC is approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider #16669, for 1.0 Contact Hours.

Acknowledgment of Commercial Support

This activity is supported by educational grants from Teva Pharmaceuticals and Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.

Tardive Dyskinesia: Moving Management Forward

Release Date: December 17, 2021
Expiration Date: December 17, 2022

Activity Overview

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder associated with dopamine receptor–blocking agents. Spontaneous movements involving the mouth and tongue are the most common manifestations; however, TD can also affect the arms, legs, trunk, and respiratory muscles. TD remains a persistent problem, despite the use of atypical or second- and third-generation antipsychotics, which carry a lower risk of developing TD. Early detection of TD is crucial, since the discontinuation of offending agents gives the best chance of recovery. Current treatment consists of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitors.

During this edition of Clinical Consultations™, 3 expert faculty will discuss risk factors for and identification of TD as well as treatment recommendations according to current guidelines. They will then discuss the latest evidence on emerging therapies and conclude with the potential impact of clinical trial data on patients’ lives.

Acknowledgement of Commercial Support

This activity is supported by educational grants from Teva Pharmaceuticals and Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.

Instructions for This Activity and Receiving Credit

  1. Complete the activity (including pre- and post-activity assessments).
  2. Answer the evaluation questions.
  3. Request credit using the drop-down menu.

You may immediately download your certificate.

Target Audience

This educational activity is directed toward psychiatrists, neurologists, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, primary care clinicians, and other health care professionals involved in the management of TD.

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this activity, you should be better prepared to:

  • Assess recent clinical trial data for current and emerging therapies for TD
  • Evaluate recent guidelines for the treatment of TD
  • Apply recent data to individualize management plans for patients with TD

Faculty, Staff, and Planners’ Disclosures

The staff of Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC have no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.


John J. Miller, MD
John J. Miller, MD
Medical Director, Brain Health Website
Editor-in-Chief, Psychiatric Times™
Staff Psychiatrist, Seacoast Mental Health Center
Consulting Psychiatrist, Exeter Hospital
Exeter, NH
Consulting Psychiatrist, Insight Meditation Society
Barre, MA

Disclosures: Consultant: Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals. Speakers’ Bureau: Allergan, Intra-Cellular Therapies, Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc., Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Teva Pharmaceuticals.


Leslie Citrome, MD, MPH
Leslie Citrome, MD, MPH
Clinical Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
New York Medical College
Valhalla, NY

Disclosures: Consultant: AbbVie/Allergan, Acadia, Adamas, Alkermes, Angelini, Astellas, Avanir, Axsome, BioXcel, Boehringer Ingelheim, Cadent Therapeutics, Eisai, Enteris BioPharma, HLS Therapeutics, Impel, Intra-Cellular Therapies, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Karuna, Lundbeck, Lyndra, MedAvante-ProPhase, Merck & Co., Neurocrine Biosciences, Novartis, Noven Therapeutics, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Ovid Therapeutics, Relmada Therapeutics, Reviva, Sage, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Teva Pharmaceuticals, University of Arizona, and one-off ad hoc consulting for individuals/entities conducting marketing, commercial, or scientific scoping research. Speaker's Bureau: AbbVie/Allergan, Acadia, Alkermes, Angelini, Eisai, Intra-Cellular Therapies, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Lundbeck, Neurocrine Biosciences, Noven Therapeutics, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Sage, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Takeda, Teva Pharmaceuticals. Stock/Shareholder: (common stock): Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly and Company, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co., Pfizer. Other Support: Royalties: Wiley (Editor-in-Chief, International Journal of Clinical Practice, through end 2019), UpToDate (reviewer), Springer Healthcare (book), Elsevier (Topic Editor, Psychiatry, Clinical Therapeutics).

Amber Hoberg, APRN, MSN, PMHNP-BC
Amber Hoberg, APRN, MSN, PMHNP-BC
Morning Star Family Medicine PLLC
San Antonio, Texas

Disclosures: Consultant: Teva Pharmaceuticals, Acadia, Intra-Cellular Therapies. Speaker's Bureau: Teva Pharmaceuticals, Acadia, Avanir, Intra-Cellular Therapies.

PER® mitigated all COI for faculty, staff, and planners prior to the start of this activity by using a multistep process.

Off-Label Disclosure and Disclaimer

This activity may or may not discuss investigational, unapproved, or off-label use of drugs. Learners are advised to consult prescribing information for any products discussed. The information provided in this accredited activity is for continuing education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent clinical judgment of a health care professional relative to diagnostic, treatment, or management options for a specific patient’s medical condition. The opinions expressed in the content are solely those of the individual faculty members and do not reflect those of PER® or any company that provided commercial support for this activity.

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